Tourmalines from Appalachian-Caledonian massive sulfide deposits; textural, chemical, and isotopic relationships

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doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.79.7.1703
Authors:Taylor, Bruce E.; Slack, John F.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Univ. Calif., Dep. Geol., Davis, CA, United States
Other:
Univ. Trondheim, Norway
U. S. Geol. Surv., United States
Volume Title:special issue devoted to massive sulfide deposits of the Appalachian-Caledonian Orogen
Volume Authors:Gair, Jacob E., editor; Vokes, Frank M.
Source:Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 79(7), p.1703-1726; Symposium on Correlation of Caledonian stratabound sulfides, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Sept. 1983, edited by Jacob E. Gair and Frank M. Vokes. Publisher: Economic Geology Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, United States. ISSN: 0361-0128
Publication Date:1984
Note:In English. 105 refs.; illus. incl. 9 tables
Summary:Tourmaline is a common gangue mineral in several strata-bound massive sulfide deposits of the Appalachian-Caledonian orogen. Most of the tourmaline-rich deposits occur in dominantly metasedimentary terranes such as Bleikvassli, Norway; Black Hawk, Maine; Ore Knob, North Carolina; and Elizabeth, Vermont. Minor amounts of tourmaline are also known in association with volcanic-hosted deposits in the Appalachians and in the Trondheim district of Norway. The tourmaline forms isolated euhedral crystals or crystal aggregates in massive sulfide and adjacent wall rocks; in a few areas, it is found in conformable tourmaline-rich layers (tourmalinites). Associated minerals may include quartz, plagioclase, phlogopite, and dolomite, with pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, galena, and sphalerite. Many of the tourmaline crystals are optically zoned, in which brown zones concentrically alternate with pale yellow or green zones. A few specimens of tourmaline intergrown with massive sulfide (e.g., Ore Knob) display fine, delicate growth lamellae similar to those commonly observed in hydrothermal (vein) sphalerites, skarn garnets, and sphalerites from the massive sulfide deposits of the Kuroko district, Japan.Detailed geochemical studies indicate that the tourmalines have characteristic major and trace element compositions. Electron microprobe analyses show that, with rare exception, the tourmalines are Mg-rich dravites (avg. FeO/(FeO + MgO) = 0.21). Abrupt transitions between color zones within some tourmaline are accompanied by relative variations in FeO/(FeO + MgO) of as much as 30 percent; yellow-brown zones are more Mg rich than blue or green zones. In contrast, the fine growth lamellae are not characterized by such variations in chemistry. Spectrographic analyses of pure mineral separates indicate that the tourmalines also contain high average contents of Cr (78 ppm), Cu (77 ppm), Pb (114 ppm), Sr (98 ppm), and V (195 ppm), while uniformly low in Li (7 ppm) and Mn (382 ppm). In all analyzed samples, fluorine is much more abundant than chlorine; the average F/Cl ratio is 33.Tourmalines from tourmalinites and massive sulfide deposits are typically characterized by heavier δ18O values (9.5-15.5ppm) and less variable, heavier δD values (generally -45 to -60ppm) than tourmalines from unmetamorphosed igneous pegmatites. The latter typically have δ18O < 9.5 per mil and δD ≤ -60 per mil. Oxygen isotope fractionations between quartz and tourmaline (δ = 1.27-4.01) do not correlate directly with inferred grade of subsequent metamorphism, although in areas of high metamorphic grade the δ values approach those of igneous quartz-tourmaline pairs. The δ18O values of quartz and tourmaline are believed to reflect variation in the oxygen isotope compositions of the host lithologies. The similar, narrow range in hydrogen isotope composition for tourmaline in all studied deposits is compatible with a modified seawater origin for the tourmaline- and sulfide- forming fluids.The distinctive textural and chemical characteristics of the tourmalines reported here have both exploration and genetic significance. Though it may have undergone recrystallization and some accompanying chemical and isotopic exchange during regional metamorphism, tourmaline in the massive sulfide deposits is an early formed, perhaps diagenetic, mineral in which fine lameliar zoning may be a preserved premetamorphic feature. In any case, the tourmalines from the massive sulfide deposits are Mg-rich dravites with trace element and stable isotope compositions substantially different from those of the Fe-rich schorls typical of most granitic rocks. These geochemical and isotopic signatures are attributed to the original environment of formation of the associated sulfide deposits and suggest that Mg-rich tourmaline may be a valuable prospecting guide in the search for massive sulfide deposits. [G.J.N.]
Subjects:Appalachian Phase; Caledonian Orogeny; Crystal growth; Economic geology; Electron probe data; Gangue; Geochemistry; IGCP; Isotopes; Major elements; Massive deposits; Metal ores; Metamorphic rocks; Metasedimentary rocks; Mineral exploration; Minerals; Ore guides; Orogenic belts; Orogeny; Paleozoic; Permian; Ring silicates; Silicates; Stable isotopes; Stratabound deposits; Sulfides; Tourmaline group; Trace elements; Zoning; Appalachians; Caledonides; Europe; North America; Norway; Scandinavia; Western Europe; Appalachian-Caledonian Orogen
Abstract Numbers:85M/3130
Record ID:1985005676
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Society of Economic Geologists
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008 190110e198411 paua 1 0 eng d
040 |a ViAlAGI  |c ViAlAGI 
072 7 |a 27A  |2 georeft 
100 1 |a Taylor, Bruce E.  |e analytic author  |u Univ. Calif., Dep. Geol., Davis, CA 
245 1 0 |a Tourmalines from Appalachian-Caledonian massive sulfide deposits; textural, chemical, and isotopic relationships 
300 |a p. 1703-1726 
500 |a In English. 105 refs. 
500 |a Abstract number: 85M/3130 
500 |a Abstractor: G.J.N. 
500 |a Affiliation: Univ. Calif., Dep. Geol.; Davis, CA; USA; United States 
500 |a Affiliation: Univ. Trondheim; ; NOR; Norway 
500 |a Affiliation: U. S. Geol. Surv.; ; USA; United States 
500 |a Key title: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists 
500 |a Source note: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 79(7), p.1703-1726; Symposium on Correlation of Caledonian stratabound sulfides, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Sept. 1983, edited by Jacob E. Gair and Frank M. Vokes. Publisher: Economic Geology Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, United States. ISSN: 0361-0128 
500 |a Publication type: conference paper or compendium article 
504 |b 105 refs. 
510 3 |a GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Society of Economic Geologists 
520 |a Tourmaline is a common gangue mineral in several strata-bound massive sulfide deposits of the Appalachian-Caledonian orogen. Most of the tourmaline-rich deposits occur in dominantly metasedimentary terranes such as Bleikvassli, Norway; Black Hawk, Maine; Ore Knob, North Carolina; and Elizabeth, Vermont. Minor amounts of tourmaline are also known in association with volcanic-hosted deposits in the Appalachians and in the Trondheim district of Norway. The tourmaline forms isolated euhedral crystals or crystal aggregates in massive sulfide and adjacent wall rocks; in a few areas, it is found in conformable tourmaline-rich layers (tourmalinites). Associated minerals may include quartz, plagioclase, phlogopite, and dolomite, with pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, galena, and sphalerite. Many of the tourmaline crystals are optically zoned, in which brown zones concentrically alternate with pale yellow or green zones. A few specimens of tourmaline intergrown with massive sulfide (e.g., Ore Knob) display fine, delicate growth lamellae similar to those commonly observed in hydrothermal (vein) sphalerites, skarn garnets, and sphalerites from the massive sulfide deposits of the Kuroko district, Japan.Detailed geochemical studies indicate that the tourmalines have characteristic major and trace element compositions. Electron microprobe analyses show that, with rare exception, the tourmalines are Mg-rich dravites (avg. FeO/(FeO + MgO) = 0.21). Abrupt transitions between color zones within some tourmaline are accompanied by relative variations in FeO/(FeO + MgO) of as much as 30 percent; yellow-brown zones are more Mg rich than blue or green zones. In contrast, the fine growth lamellae are not characterized by such variations in chemistry. Spectrographic analyses of pure mineral separates indicate that the tourmalines also contain high average contents of Cr (78 ppm), Cu (77 ppm), Pb (114 ppm), Sr (98 ppm), and V (195 ppm), while uniformly low in Li (7 ppm) and Mn (382 ppm). In all analyzed samples, fluorine is much more abundant than chlorine; the average F/Cl ratio is 33.Tourmalines from tourmalinites and massive sulfide deposits are typically characterized by heavier δ>18`O values (9.5-15.5ppm) and less variable, heavier δD values (generally -45 to -60ppm) than tourmalines from unmetamorphosed igneous pegmatites. The latter typically have δ>18`O #LT 9.5 per mil and δD ≤ -60 per mil. Oxygen isotope fractionations between quartz and tourmaline (δ = 1.27-4.01) do not correlate directly with inferred grade of subsequent metamorphism, although in areas of high metamorphic grade the δ values approach those of igneous quartz-tourmaline pairs. The δ>18`O values of quartz and tourmaline are believed to reflect variation in the oxygen isotope compositions of the host lithologies. The similar, narrow range in hydrogen isotope composition for tourmaline in all studied deposits is compatible with a modified seawater origin for the tourmaline- and sulfide- forming fluids.The distinctive textural and chemical characteristics of the tourmalines reported here have both exploration and genetic significance. Though it may have undergone recrystallization and some accompanying chemical and isotopic exchange during regional metamorphism, tourmaline in the massive sulfide deposits is an early formed, perhaps diagenetic, mineral in which fine lameliar zoning may be a preserved premetamorphic feature. In any case, the tourmalines from the massive sulfide deposits are Mg-rich dravites with trace element and stable isotope compositions substantially different from those of the Fe-rich schorls typical of most granitic rocks. These geochemical and isotopic signatures are attributed to the original environment of formation of the associated sulfide deposits and suggest that Mg-rich tourmaline may be a valuable prospecting guide in the search for massive sulfide deposits. 
650 7 |a Appalachian Phase  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Caledonian Orogeny  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Crystal growth  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Economic geology  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Electron probe data  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Gangue  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Geochemistry  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a IGCP  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Isotopes  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Major elements  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Massive deposits  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Metal ores  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Metamorphic rocks  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Metasedimentary rocks  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Mineral exploration  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Minerals  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Ore guides  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Orogenic belts  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Orogeny  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Paleozoic  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Permian  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Ring silicates  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Silicates  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Stable isotopes  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Stratabound deposits  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Sulfides  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Tourmaline group  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Trace elements  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Zoning  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Appalachians  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Caledonides  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Europe  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a North America  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Norway  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Scandinavia  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Western Europe  |2 georeft 
653 |a Appalachian-Caledonian Orogen 
700 1 |a Slack, John F.,  |e analytic author 
700 1 |a Vokes, Frank M.,  |e monographic editor 
711 2 |a Symposium on Correlation of Caledonian stratabound sulfides  |d (1983 :  |c Ottawa, ON, Canada)  
773 0 |a Gair, Jacob E., editor  |t special issue devoted to massive sulfide deposits of the Appalachian-Caledonian Orogen  |d Lancaster, PA : Economic Geology Publishing Company, Nov. 1984  |k Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists  |x 0361-0128  |y ECGLAL  |n Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 79(7), p.1703-1726; Symposium on Correlation of Caledonian stratabound sulfides, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Sept. 1983, edited by Jacob E. Gair and Frank M. Vokes. Publisher: Economic Geology Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, United States. ISSN: 0361-0128 Publication type: conference paper or compendium article  |g Vol. 79, no. 7  |h illus. incl. 9 tables 
856 |u urn:doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.79.7.1703