Chromite from the Swartkop chrome mine; an estimate of the effects of subsolidus reequilibration

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doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.80.4.911
Authors:Hatton, Christopher J.; Von Gruenewaldt, Gerhard
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Univ. Pretoria, Inst. Geol. Res. Bushveld Complex, Pretoria, South Africa
Volume Title:special issue devoted to the Bushveld Complex
Volume Authors:Von Gruenewaldt, Gerhard, editor; Sharpe, Martin R.; Hatton, Christopher J.
Source:Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 80(4), p.911-924; Symposium on the Bushveld Complex, Pretoria, South Africa, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1983, edited by Gerhard Von Gruenewaldt, Martin R. Sharpe and Christopher J. Hatton. Publisher: Economic Geology Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, United States. ISSN: 0361-0128
Publication Date:1985
Note:In English. 40 refs.; illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map
Summary:Chromites from the LG-3, LG-4, and LG-6 chromitite layers at the Zwartkop mine are investigated and subsolidus behavior of chromite in olivine and orthopyroxene-hosted environments is compared. Chromitite layers LG-3 and LG-6 are orthopyroxene hosted, but layer LG-4 is olivine hosted, with abundant orthopyroxene formed by a reaction relation between olivine and liquid. Chromite has reequilibrated with host silicate to a degree dependent on the nature of the host silicate and the modal amounts of chromite present. In an olivine environment, reequilibration between chromite and silicate proceeds to lower temperatures with consequently more iron-rich chromite than in an orthopyroxene-hosted chromite. In a given environment the closure temperature for silicate-chromite reequilibration decreases systematically as the modal amount of chromite decreases. From this systematic relation the solidus temperature can be estimated and some inferences about the original chromite composition can be made. In the LG-6 layer, chromite compositions can be projected back to solidus compositions along a trajectory of constant activity of the MgAl2O4 component, and at the solidus temperature, chromite composition within and adjacent to the chromitite layer is essentially the same. The activity of MgAl2O4 remained constant because chromite was in equilibrium with the host orthopyroxene throughout the temperature range in which reequilibration took place. In layer LG-4 the activity of MgAl2O4 increased during cooling because the solidus chromite was not in equilibrium with orthopyroxene formed by reaction between olivine and liquid. Because the liquid which reacted with olivine was more aluminous than the liquid from which the olivine originally crystallized, subsolidus reequilibration between orthopyroxene and chromite led to an increase in the concentration of Al2O3 in chromite. Consequently the decrease in Mg content of chromite during cooling is accompanied by an increase in Al content, in contrast to the more common decrease in Al content observed in layer LG-6, which results from the higher stability of the MgAl2O4 and FeCr2O4 components relative to their reciprocal counterparts, MgCr2O4 and FeAl2O4. In layer LG-3, chromites follow a trend similar to layer LG-6, although the trend is displaced slightly in the direction of the layer LG-4 trend. The presence of a thin olivine-bearing layer above the LG-3 chromitite layer attests to the possibility of some degree of disequilibrium between orthopyroxene and chromite.Estimated solidus temperatures increase upward from layer LG-3 to LG-4 then decrease sharply to layer LG-6. The increase in solidus temperature at layer LG-4 is attributed to the injection of ultramafic liquid into the pyroxenitic liquid already in the chamber. Partial mixing between the ultramafic and pyroxenitic liquid was accompanied by crystallization of olivine and chromite, but unmixed pyroxenitic liquid, with a lower solidus temperature remained in place below the olivine-chromite cumulate horizon. Sinking of olivine-chromite clots into the underlying liquid resulted in the formation of orthopyroxene by reaction between olivine and the pyroxenitic liquid. Chromites in layer LG-6 probably formed by mixing between liquids, with the injected liquid possibly of gabbroic composition.Reequilibration with respect to oxygen fugacity appears to have been comprehensive, for Fe+2/Fe+3 ratios within and adjacent to a chromitite layer are essentially constant for all the layers examined. [G.J.N.]
Subjects:Chromite; Chromite ores; Chromitite; Composition; Differentiation; Economic geology; Fractional crystallization; Igneous rocks; Intrusions; Layered intrusions; Magmas; Metal ores; Mineral composition; Oxides; P-T conditions; Phase equilibria; Plutonic rocks; Temperature; Ultramafics; Africa; Bushveld Complex; South Africa; Southern Africa; Transvaal region; Swartkop Mine; Transvaal South Africa; Zwartkop Mine
Coordinates:S250000 S243000 E0273000 E0270000
Abstract Numbers:86M/0979
Record ID:1985071668
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Society of Economic Geologists
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072 7 |a 27A  |2 georeft 
100 1 |a Hatton, Christopher J.  |e analytic author  |u Univ. Pretoria, Inst. Geol. Res. Bushveld Complex, Pretoria 
245 1 0 |a Chromite from the Swartkop chrome mine; an estimate of the effects of subsolidus reequilibration 
300 |a p. 911-924 
500 |a In English. 40 refs. 
500 |a Abstract number: 86M/0979 
500 |a Abstractor: G.J.N. 
500 |a Affiliation: Univ. Pretoria, Inst. Geol. Res. Bushveld Complex; Pretoria; ZAF; South Africa 
500 |a Key title: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists 
500 |a Source note: Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 80(4), p.911-924; Symposium on the Bushveld Complex, Pretoria, South Africa, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1983, edited by Gerhard Von Gruenewaldt, Martin R. Sharpe and Christopher J. Hatton. Publisher: Economic Geology Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, United States. ISSN: 0361-0128 
500 |a Publication type: conference paper or compendium article 
504 |b 40 refs. 
510 3 |a GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Society of Economic Geologists 
520 |a Chromites from the LG-3, LG-4, and LG-6 chromitite layers at the Zwartkop mine are investigated and subsolidus behavior of chromite in olivine and orthopyroxene-hosted environments is compared. Chromitite layers LG-3 and LG-6 are orthopyroxene hosted, but layer LG-4 is olivine hosted, with abundant orthopyroxene formed by a reaction relation between olivine and liquid. Chromite has reequilibrated with host silicate to a degree dependent on the nature of the host silicate and the modal amounts of chromite present. In an olivine environment, reequilibration between chromite and silicate proceeds to lower temperatures with consequently more iron-rich chromite than in an orthopyroxene-hosted chromite. In a given environment the closure temperature for silicate-chromite reequilibration decreases systematically as the modal amount of chromite decreases. From this systematic relation the solidus temperature can be estimated and some inferences about the original chromite composition can be made. In the LG-6 layer, chromite compositions can be projected back to solidus compositions along a trajectory of constant activity of the MgAl<2`O<4` component, and at the solidus temperature, chromite composition within and adjacent to the chromitite layer is essentially the same. The activity of MgAl<2`O<4` remained constant because chromite was in equilibrium with the host orthopyroxene throughout the temperature range in which reequilibration took place. In layer LG-4 the activity of MgAl<2`O<4` increased during cooling because the solidus chromite was not in equilibrium with orthopyroxene formed by reaction between olivine and liquid. Because the liquid which reacted with olivine was more aluminous than the liquid from which the olivine originally crystallized, subsolidus reequilibration between orthopyroxene and chromite led to an increase in the concentration of Al<2`O<3` in chromite. Consequently the decrease in Mg content of chromite during cooling is accompanied by an increase in Al content, in contrast to the more common decrease in Al content observed in layer LG-6, which results from the higher stability of the MgAl<2`O<4` and FeCr<2`O<4` components relative to their reciprocal counterparts, MgCr<2`O<4` and FeAl<2`O<4`. In layer LG-3, chromites follow a trend similar to layer LG-6, although the trend is displaced slightly in the direction of the layer LG-4 trend. The presence of a thin olivine-bearing layer above the LG-3 chromitite layer attests to the possibility of some degree of disequilibrium between orthopyroxene and chromite.Estimated solidus temperatures increase upward from layer LG-3 to LG-4 then decrease sharply to layer LG-6. The increase in solidus temperature at layer LG-4 is attributed to the injection of ultramafic liquid into the pyroxenitic liquid already in the chamber. Partial mixing between the ultramafic and pyroxenitic liquid was accompanied by crystallization of olivine and chromite, but unmixed pyroxenitic liquid, with a lower solidus temperature remained in place below the olivine-chromite cumulate horizon. Sinking of olivine-chromite clots into the underlying liquid resulted in the formation of orthopyroxene by reaction between olivine and the pyroxenitic liquid. Chromites in layer LG-6 probably formed by mixing between liquids, with the injected liquid possibly of gabbroic composition.Reequilibration with respect to oxygen fugacity appears to have been comprehensive, for Fe>+2`/Fe>+3` ratios within and adjacent to a chromitite layer are essentially constant for all the layers examined. 
650 7 |a Chromite  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Chromite ores  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Chromitite  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Composition  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Differentiation  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Economic geology  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Fractional crystallization  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Igneous rocks  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Intrusions  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Layered intrusions  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Magmas  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Metal ores  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Mineral composition  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Oxides  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a P-T conditions  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Phase equilibria  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Plutonic rocks  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Temperature  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Ultramafics  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Africa  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Bushveld Complex  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a South Africa  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Southern Africa  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Transvaal region  |2 georeft 
653 |a Swartkop Mine 
653 |a Transvaal South Africa 
653 |a Zwartkop Mine 
700 1 |a Von Gruenewaldt, Gerhard,  |e analytic author 
700 1 |a Sharpe, Martin R.,  |e monographic editor 
700 1 |a Hatton, Christopher J.,  |e monographic editor 
711 2 |a Symposium on the Bushveld Complex  |d (1983 :  |c Pretoria, South Africa)  
773 0 |a Von Gruenewaldt, Gerhard, editor  |t special issue devoted to the Bushveld Complex  |d Lancaster, PA : Economic Geology Publishing Company, Jul. 1985  |k Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists  |x 0361-0128  |y ECGLAL  |n Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 80(4), p.911-924; Symposium on the Bushveld Complex, Pretoria, South Africa, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1983, edited by Gerhard Von Gruenewaldt, Martin R. Sharpe and Christopher J. Hatton. Publisher: Economic Geology Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, United States. ISSN: 0361-0128 Publication type: conference paper or compendium article  |g Vol. 80, no. 4  |h illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map 
856 |u urn:doi: 10.2113/gsecongeo.80.4.911