A laboratory and theoretical study of the growth of "black smoker" chimneys

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doi: 10.1016/0012-821X(87)90105-1
Authors:Turner, J. S.; Campbell, I. H.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Aust. Natl. Univ., Res. Sch. Earth Sci., Canberra, Australia
Volume Title:Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Source:Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 82(1-2), p.36-48. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0012-821X
Publication Date:1987
Note:In English. 22 refs.; illus.
Summary:Observations suggest that chimneys are formed by precipitation of anhydrite from sea-water, producing a solid framework which is replaced successively by Fe, Zn and Cu sulphides. The feasibility of this process is demonstrated, using a laboratory model in which KNO3 is crystallized from a warm, nearly saturated solution round an inflowing plume of cold K2CO3. The chimney grows in length at a nearly constant rate, and thickens as conduction causes further crystallization. The dynamic replacement process is modelled separately, with CuSO4 passed through a chimney of KNO3. The formation of chimneys at a line or slit source has also been investigated. In this case, the slit is quickly blocked off by crystallization over most of its length. A theory has been developed which predicts the diameter of the vent outlet and the sign of the P difference between the inside and outside of an axisymmetric chimney of constant internal diameter for a specified flow rate and density difference. The theory has been extended to tapering conduits, and leads to the conclusion that flow through a porous chimney can reverse along its length. [P.Br.]
Subjects:Chimneys; Copper ores; Equations; Genesis; Hydrothermal alteration; Iron ores; Mathematical models; Metal ores; Metasomatism; Mineral deposits, genesis; Mineral resources; Numerical analysis; Ocean floors; Precipitation; Processes; Sea water; Thermal circulation; Vents; Zinc ores; East Pacific; East Pacific Rise; Pacific Ocean; Black smoker chimneys; Hydrothermal processes; Oceanic mounds; White smoker chimneys
Abstract Numbers:87M/5969
Record ID:1987053581
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from Mineralogical Abstracts, United Kingdom, Twickenham, United Kingdom
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