A petrologic re-investigation of the Adak volcanic center, central Aleutian Arc, Alaska

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doi: 10.1016/0377-0273(94)90065-5
Authors:Myers, James D.; Frost, Carol D.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
University of Wyoming, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Laramie, WY, United States
Volume Title:Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Source:Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 60(2), p.109-146. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0377-0273
Publication Date:1994
Note:In English. 85 refs.; illus. incl. 2 tables, geol. sketch maps
Summary:The Adak volcanic center is located in the central part of the Aleutian arc and consists of three main volcanic vents. Andrew Bay Volcano, the oldest center, has been mostly removed by erosion. The next youngest vent, Mount Adagdak, was built in three major volcanic stages whereas Mount Moffett, the largest volcanic edifice, consists of a main cone and a parasitic cone each with several magmatic phases. Adak is unique compared to other modern Aleutian volcanic centers in that it contains two xenolith suites (Conrad and Kay, 1984; Debari et al., 1987). One suite consisting predominantly of mafic xenoliths occurs on Mount Moffett whereas an assemblage of ultramafic and mafic xenoliths is found on Mount Adagdak. Lavas erupted at Adak span the compositional range from 48.4 to 65.0 wt.% SiO2 and are characterized by significant variations in Al2O3, MgO, Sr, Ni and Cr. On Harker diagrams, this variability produces compositional trends with significant scatter. The Adak suite has total REE contents that vary from 32 to 154 ppm but do not correlate systematically with silica. (La/Yb)n ratios range from 2.41 to 21.72 with the majority of lavas between 2.41 and 6.06. On process identification diagrams, the Adak suite plots as steeply sloping trends that contrast with the horizontal patterns of most other Aleutian centers. Measured isotopic ranges are large and nearly equal to those for the entire arc. Although they span similar silica ranges, subtle geochemical and isotopic differences distinguish the different volcanic vents of Adak. On Mount Moffett, a geochemically and isotopically distinct group of andesites (55.5-57.9% SiO2), the mafic andesites, occur on its NE flank. These lavas have elevated MgO, Ni and Cr but are depleted in Al2O3 relative to other Mount Moffett andesites with similar silica. They also have more heterogeneous REE abundances and isotopic ratios than most of the other andesites. Significant compositional differences exist between Adak and the other volcanic centers of the central Aleutian arc. Although these differences are characteristic of all geochemical systems, they are greatest for major and rare-earth elements and isotopic ratios. The lack of coherent relationships on major- and trace-element Harker diagrams, the isotopic variability, as well as the steeply sloping trends on REE process identification diagrams suggest that the Adak volcanic suite was not formed predominantly by closed-system crystal fractionation, but must be the product of a complex open-system process(es). The significant isotopic variability displayed by the suite suggests that contamination by an isotopically distinct contaminant must also have been an important petrologic component in the evolution of the suite. REE data are also suggestive of a role for magma mixing. Such a complex petrologic evolution is consistent with an immature lithospheric plumbing system. Based on REE systematics, the xenolith suites of Adak cannot, as previously proposed, be related to the host lavas or the rest of the Adak suite through crystal fractionation schemes. Rather they are probably accidental fragments derived from various depths along lithospheric conduits. In light of their relation to xenolith-bearing units, the mafic andesites of Adak presumably represent hybrid magmas formed during the interaction of ascending magmas with lithospheric wall rock. They are, therefore, characteristic of immature volcanic centers and unlikely to be related directly to the magmatic processes responsible for the generation of primary arc magmas. Because of the close proximity of the vents and the subtle compositional differences between their lavas, the Adak volcanic center was probably supplied by a single, deep lithospheric plumbing system that fed separate crustal magma chambers. The absence of historic volcanic activity on Adak suggests this plumbing system was abandoned before complete conduit development. This decline in magmatism may reflect a re-adjustment of volcano spacing within this part of the Aleutian arc.
Subjects:Alkaline earth metals; Domes; Geochemistry; Interpretation; Isotope ratios; Isotopes; Lava; Lead; Magmas; Melting; Metals; Mineral assemblages; Nd-144/Nd-143; Neodymium; Pb-207/Pb-204; Pb-208/Pb-204; Petrography; Processes; Radioactive isotopes; Rare earths; Sampling; Sr-87/Sr-86; Stable isotopes; Strontium; Trace elements; Vents; Volcanoes; Adak Island; Alaska; Aleutian Islands; United States; Andrew Bay; Mount Moffett; Southwestern Alaska
Abstract Numbers:95M/1039
Record ID:1994028141
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands
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