Compositional variations in submarine volcanic ashes from the vicinity of the Vanuatu island arc; a response to ridge-arc collision?

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doi: 10.1016/0377-0273(96)00010-8
Authors:Baker, P. E.; Condliffe, E.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
Volume Title:Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Source:Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 72(3-4), p.225-238. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0377-0273
Publication Date:1996
Note:In English. 37 refs.; illus., incl. 1 table, geol. sketch map
Summary:The late Tertiary-Recent collision of the d'Entrecasteaux Zone with the Vanuatu (New Hebrides) Island Arc appears to have been associated with a shift to generally more potassic compositions. Glass shards analysed from Quaternary volcanic ashes recovered from ODP Leg 134 drill sites follow distinct shoshonitic and calc-alkaline trends, consistent with those previously recognised onshore. In the Aoba Basin (Site 832) a marked compositional change is recognised at 37 m below sea floor (mbsf). From estimates of sedimentation rates this is equivalent to an age of about 100 ka and may be associated with the development of the Central Basin volcanoes of Santa Maria, Aoba and Ambrym on fracture zones transverse to the island arc. Deeper than 37 mbsf differentiated compositions fall on a medium-K calc -alkaline trend but the associated basaltic glasses are strongly potassic. Conversely, above this level the differentiated glasses follow a shoshonitic trend but the basaltic glasses are medium-K calc-alkaline. Separate sources are envisaged, associated with subduction and rifting. Episodic subduction of the d'Entrecasteaux Zone exercises tectonic control over the release of magma from different depths. In contrast, shoshonitic glasses are sparsely represented in the Vanuatu forearc where relatively low-K calc-alkaline compositions probably correspond to the ashes in the lower part of the Aoba Basin sequence. This is consistent with their age (>100 ka) estimated from lower sedimentation rates at these sites. The scarcity of younger shoshonitic ashes at the forearc sites is attributed to the influence of high-level westerly winds transporting ash from the Central Chain volcanoes eastwards across the North Fiji Basin. Abstract Copyright (1996) Elsevier, B.V.
Subjects:Cenozoic; Chemical composition; Clasts; Glasses; Holocene; Igneous rocks; Island arcs; Mid-ocean ridges; Mineral composition; Ocean floors; Plate collision; Plate tectonics; Potassic composition; Quaternary; Tertiary; Volcanic ash; Volcanic rocks; Melanesia; Oceania; Vanuatu; Aoba Basin
Coordinates:S160000 S140000 E1680000 E1660000
Abstract Numbers:97M/2159
Record ID:1996076025
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands
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