Lake ores and iron industry in Finland during the period 1811-1916

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Authors:Puustinen, Kauko
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland
Corporate Authors:Finland, Geological Survey
Volume Title:Geological Survey of Finland, current research 1999-2000
Volume Authors:Autio, Sini, editor
Source:Geological Survey of Finland, current research 1999-2000, edited by Sini Autio; Finland, Geological Survey. Special Paper - Geological Survey of Finland, Vol.31, p.47-55. Publisher: Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland. ISSN: 0782-8535. ISBN: 951-690-802-0
Publication Date:2001
Note:In English
Summary:This historical perspective on the evolution of the manufacture of iron from iron oxides begins with the processes used in pre-historic times. Heating iron oxides with charcoal in pits was a universal method. By the end of the 19th century bloomery furnaces with a single-fill charge of iron oxide came into use, producing pig iron, a soft malleable form suitable for hammering into shape. In Finland ore from Sweden was turned into iron in blast furnaces until the beginning of the 19th century when Finland was annexed to Russia. With imported ore no longer freely available and demand rising lake ore and bog ore were necessary to support the new industry. This paper charts the distribution of lake and bog ore in Finland, a study that also charts the history of mineral exploration in Finland. [G.L.B.]
Sections:Economic minerals and ore deposits
Subsections:Metallic deposits: regional
Subjects:History; Industry; Iron ores; Lacustrine environment; Metal ores; Mining; Mining claims; Production; Europe; Finland; Scandinavia; Western Europe
Abstract Numbers:04M/4712
Record ID:2002029736
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from Mineralogical Abstracts, United Kingdom, Twickenham, United Kingdom, Reference includes data from FINGEO, Geological Survey of Finland
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