Hydrogen isotope geochemistry and heat balance of a fumarolic system; Kudriavy Volcano, Kuriles

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doi: 10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00043-X
Authors:Botcharnikov, Roman E.; Shmulovich, Kirill I.; Tkachenko, Sergey I.; Korzhinsky, Mikhail A.; Rybin, Alexander V.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Mineralogy, Chernogolovka, Russian Federation
Volume Title:Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Source:Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 124(1-2), p.45-66. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0377-0273
Publication Date:2003
Note:In English. 88 refs.; illus., incl. 1 table
Summary:The temperature and hydrogen isotope composition of the fumarolic gases have been studied at Kudriavy volcano, Kurile Islands, which is unique for investigating the processes of magma degassing because of the occurrence of numerous easily accessible fumaroles with a temperature range of 100-940°C. There are several local fumarolic fields with a total surface area of about 2600 m2 within the flattened crater of 200×600 m. Each fumarolic field is characterized by the occurrence of high- and low-temperature fumaroles with high gas discharges and steaming areas with lower temperatures. We have studied the thermal budget of the Kudriavy fumarolic system on the basis of the quantitative dependences of the hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) and tritium concentration on the temperature of fumarolic gases and compared them with the calculated heat balance of mixing between hot magmatic gas and cold meteoric water. Hydrogen isotope composition (δD and 3H) shows a well expressed correlation with the gas temperature. Since D/H ratio and 3H are good indicators of water sources in volcanic areas, it suggests that the thermal budget of the fumarolic system is mostly controlled by the admixing of meteoric waters to magmatic gases. The convective mechanism of heat transfer in the hydrothermal system governs the maximum temperatures of local fumaroles and fumarolic fields. Low-temperature fumaroles at Kudriavy are thermally buffered by the boiling processes of meteoric waters in the mixing zone at pressures of 3-12 bar. These values may correspond to the hydrostatic pressure of water columns about 30-120 m in height in the volcanic edifice and hence to the depth of a mixing/boiling zone. Conductive heat transfer is governed by conductive heat exchange between gases and country rocks and appears to be responsible for the temperature distribution around a local fumarolic vent. The temperature and pressure of shallow degassing magma are estimated to be 1050°C and 2-3 bar, respectively. The length of the "main" fumarolic gas conduit is estimated to be about 80 m from the linear correlation between maximal temperatures of fumarolic fields and distances to the highest-temperature "F-940" fumarole. This value may correspond to the depth of an apical part of the magmatic chamber. The geometry of the crater zone at the Kudriavy summit and the model of convective gas cooling suggest different hydrostatic pressures in the hydrothermal system at the base of high- and low-temperature gas conduits. The depths of gas sources for low-temperature fumaroles are evaluated to be about 200 m at the periphery of the magma chamber. Abstract Copyright (2003) Elsevier, B.V.
Subjects:Deuterium; Fumaroles; Geochemistry; Hydrogen; Isotopes; Magmas; P-T conditions; Radioactive isotopes; Stable isotopes; Temperature; Tritium; Volcanism; Volcanoes; Asia; Commonwealth of Independent States; Etorofu Island; Kudryavyy; Kuril Islands; Russian Federation; Russian Pacific region; Sakhalin Russian Federation; Heat budget
Coordinates:N433000 N510000 E1570000 E1450000
Abstract Numbers:03M/4753
Record ID:2003045250
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands
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