Magma-assisted rifting in Ethiopia

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doi: 10.1038/nature03161
Authors:Kendall, J. M.; Stuart, G. W.; Ebinger, C. J.; Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
University of Leeds, School of Earth Sciences, Leeds, United Kingdom
Other:
Royal Holloway University of London, United Kingdom
Volume Title:Nature (London)
Source:Nature (London), 433(7022), p.146-148. Publisher: Macmillan Journals, London, United Kingdom. ISSN: 0028-0836
Publication Date:2005
Note:In English. 30 refs.; illus., incl. sketch map
Summary:The results are presented of part of the Eagle project (Ethiopian Afar Geophysical Lithospheric Experiment) investigating rifting processes in Ethiopia. The Miocene to Recent Ethiopian rift system, which is illustrated in sketch maps, forms the N part of the East African Rift system, and forms one arm of a triple junction that formed near a mantle plume. The study region is transitional between continental and incipient oceanic crust with strain localized in up to 20 km-wide zones of dyke intrusions, faulting and volcanism. Of the 327 SKS shear-splitting seismic results obtained, the highest splitting region occurs where the < 11 Ma sector of the Ethiopian rift valley changes from NNE to NE before broadening into the Afar depression, and links the East African Rift with the Oligocene S Red Sea rift. The seismic anisotropy is probably caused by rifting processes in the upper mantle, and correlation with dyke orientation and faulted dykes in magmatic segments indicates that the seismic anisotropy is associated with magmatic-assisted rifting processes with melt-induced anisotropy in initially cold, thick continental lithosphere. [R.K.H.]
Sections:Petrology
Subsections:Igneous petrology
Subjects:Anisotropy; Cratons; Crust; Elastic waves; Geophysical methods; Geophysical surveys; Lithosphere; Magmatism; Mantle; Models; Plate tectonics; Rift zones; Rifting; Seismic methods; Seismic waves; Surveys; Tomography; Upwelling; Africa; East Africa; Ethiopia; Ethiopian Rift; EAGLE Project
Abstract Numbers:05M/159
Record ID:2006012620
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from Mineralogical Abstracts, United Kingdom, Twickenham, United Kingdom
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