Utilisation of sillimanite minerals, their geology, and potential occurrences in Norway; an overview

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Authors:Ihlen, Peter M.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim, Norway
Volume Title:Industrial minerals and rocks in Norway
Volume Authors:Cook, Nigel J., editor; Karlsen, Tor Arne; Roberts, David
Source:Industrial minerals and rocks in Norway, edited by Nigel J. Cook, Tor Arne Karlsen and David Roberts. Bulletin - Norges Geologiske Undersokelse, Vol.436, p.113-128. Publisher: Universitetsforlaget, Trondheim - Oslo, Norway. ISSN: 0332-5768
Publication Date:2000
Note:In English. 79 refs.; illus., incl. 3 tables, geol. sketch maps
Summary:The aluminium-silicate polymorphs sillimanite, andalusite and kyanite decompose to a mixture of mullite and silica glass during calcination. Mullite is an essential component of high-alumina refractories forming the inner lining of furnaces and high-temperature vessels widely used in the production of metals, ceramics, glass and cement. Sillimanite, andalusite and kyanite constituted 2%, 74% and 24%, respectively, of the total western world's production of sillimanite minerals in 1998 of a total of about 401 000 tonnes, of which about 95% was consumed by the refractory industry. The sillimanite minerals are mined mainly in South Africa (62%; andalusite), USA (23%; kyanite) and France (11%; andalusite), whereas the major consumers are found in the major iron- and steel-producing areas of the world. Production has declined over the last decade, due mainly to cutbacks in iron and steel production. Most economic deposits of sillimanite minerals can be classified as metamorphogenic and include contact-metamorphic andalusite deposits, stratabound podiform deposits of massive (corundum)-sillimanite and (corundum)-kyanite rocks and stratiform deposits of kyanite quartzites. The former occur within metapelitic sequences in the contact aureoles of plutonic massifs, whereas the two latter in most cases are interpreted as representing metamorphosed high-alumina sediments, derived from hydrothermal alteration centres in subaerial felsic to intermediate volcanites. All of these deposit types have also been recognised in Norway. The most promising occurrences are the andalusite schists within the contact aureoles of the Fongen-Hyllingen and Oyungen Gabbro Complexes in the Caledonides of Central Norway.
Sections:Economic minerals and ore deposits
Subsections:Non-metallic deposits
Subjects:Andalusite deposits; Consumption; Contact metamorphism; Gabbros; Host rocks; Igneous rocks; Industrial minerals; Intrusions; Markets; Massive deposits; Metamorphic rocks; Metamorphism; Mineral assemblages; Mineral composition; Mineral economics; Mineral exploration; Mining; Nesosilicates; Orthosilicates; Paleozoic; Petrography; Plutonic rocks; Production; Properties; Refractory materials; Schists; Silicates; Sillimanite; Sillimanite deposits; Africa; Caledonides; Europe; Norway; Scandinavia; South Africa; Southern Africa; Western Europe; Fongen-Hyllingen Complex; Oyungen Complex
Coordinates:N600000 N620000 E0120000 E0103000
Abstract Numbers:02M/2627
Record ID:2008106279
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2020 American Geosciences Institute.
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