Volcanic tremor related to the 1991 eruption of the Hekla Volcano, Iceland

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doi: 10.1007/s00445-003-0285-y
Authors:Soosalu, Heidi; Einarsson, Pall; Jakobsdottir, Steinunn
Volume Title:Bulletin of Volcanology
Source:for the [Bulletin of Volcanology, 65(8), p.562-577. Publisher: Springer International] International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI), Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany. ISSN: 0258-8900
Publication Date:2003
Note:In English. 37 refs.; illus.
Summary:Volcanic tremor at Hekla relates closely to eruptive activity and has not been observed during periods of non-eruption Small premontary seismic activity beginning at 16:30 GMT on 17 January 1991 was followed at 17:02 by low frequency volcanic tremor that marked the start of the eruption. A brief Plinian phase was followed by activity at several fissures but by the second day this was limited to a segment of one of the principal fissures. After almost 53 days detectable volcanic tremor ceased and the end of the eruption was followed by a swarm of small earthquakes. Tremor amplitude rose rapidly at the start of the eruption reaching a maximum in 10 minutes and remaining vigorous for an hour. During the next hour it declined rapidly then followed a continuously declining trend with occasional increases for up to two days at a time. Spectral analysis of the first 7 hours indicates that the tremor settled to its characteristic frequency band, 10.5-1.5 Hz, within a few minutes with a dominant peak at 0.7-0.9 Hz. The source of the Hekla tremor is probably shallow and particle motion plots suggest a significant component of surface waves. The start of tremor coincided with the connection of the magma conduit with the surface so degassing may contribute to its generation. [J.G.M.]
Subjects:Earthquakes; Eruptions; Microseisms; Monitoring; Spectral analysis; Volcanic earthquakes; Volcanic risk; Volcanoes; Europe; Hekla; Iceland; Western Europe; Hekla eruption 1991
Coordinates:N640100 N640100 W0193900 W0193900
Abstract Numbers:04M/1172
Record ID:2010066694
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from Mineralogical Abstracts, United Kingdom, Twickenham, United Kingdom, Reference includes data from Geoline, Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe
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